Is there a link between an Abortion leading to Mental health disorders?

Mental health problems are becoming increasingly more common. Rates of mental health for men and for women are nearly the same, however structures of mental health illness are more different. Some of the main psychiatric disorders for women are depression, anxiety and somatic complaints. Where as for men some of the main psychiatric disorders are antisocial personality disorder as well as alcohol dependable disorder. (WHO, ND)

 There is a lot of help available for people suffering from a mental health disorder but but we don’t always have the answers of what has caused a person to have a mental health disorder. In modern society one of the main areas of research that is still current for women’s mental health is whether there is any relation to women who are having mental health problems and have abortion history. This could have been years apart. Currently if a lady has had an abortion there is no need for them to have counselling afterwards. Counselling is offered but not mandatory for women in this situation. Many women go through this and feel that they need to deal with it themselves as well as the social stigma guilt and grief that women go through. It is a lot to deal with and it can take over a woman;s life trying to deal with it on their own, leading to more women having mental health problems.

One article suggests that most women don’t need counselling afterwards and that they should talk to a trusted friend. http://www.womenonweb.org/article-258-en.html This is a good idea to start with but what happens if the feeling of guilt and grief take over. Or the trusted friend is not so supportive? The NHS also say that there is no link between abortion and long term mental health problems. However it does not say anything about short term mental health problems. (NHS, 2012)

However another article by Dr. Priscilla Coleman suggests that abortion has a clear link with long term health problems such as panic attacks, depression, substance abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder. (Coleman, P 2008)

This discussion of the implications of mental health and abortion having any relation have been traced back to as far as 1987. Yet it is still not seen as a need for proper counselling being mandatory for all women. There is a lot more research needed to see if there really is a link between the two, however research into this needs to be done ethically so that if the is a clear link it will be in the woman’s best interest and more help is given.

Read more: http://healthland.time.com/2012/03/08/study-linking-abortion-to-mental-health-problems-is-flawed/#ixzz1t97oXTDB

References

Anon (ND) Do you require psychological counselling after you have had an abortion? Retrieved from (April 2012) http://www.womenonweb.org/article-258-en.html

Anon (ND) Gender and womans mental health Retrieved from (April 2012) http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/

Coleman, P (September 2008) Isolating the effects of abortion in the national comorbidity survey. Retrieved from http://www.journalofpsychiatricresearch.com/article/S0022-3956(08)00238-0/abstract

Major, B et al ( December 2009) Abortion ann mental health, evaluating the evidence. Retrieved from (April 2012) http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/features/amp-64-9-863.pdf

Sifferlis, A (March 2012) Study Linking Abortion to Mental Health Problems Is Flawed. Retrieved from (April 2012)http://healthland.time.com/2012/03/08/study-linking-abortion-to-mental-health-problems-is-flawed/#ixzz1tPw7umO4

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Media, Violence and Children

In today’s society it is becoming more common for younger children to view and have access to violent media whether it be computer games, TV programmed or on the computer.  However this was not the case many years ago.  In the 1950 only 10% of american homes had a Television.  In modern society 99% of homes have a television.  This shows a significant increase into the the population that are exposed to more things through the media.  Children in particular are exposed to more and more expeiriences that back in the 1950’s society would not have let children experience.

With the increase of television in the home aswell as an increase in children having televisions in their bedroom where the content of what is viewed cannot be monitored this increases the opportunities that the child has to be subjected to violence.

But does any of this really effect the child behavior and development or is this something that can be left and not dealt with having no ripple effects on society.  Research suggest that children who are exposed to high levels of violence do have changes in their behavior.  Research has been going on for a number of years into this area of study and it shows that in many cases children are spending around 28 hours a week on video games or television a week  (that’s more than they would go to school) A child at the age of 4 years old does not have the ability to destinguish between fact and fantasy.  Which can result in a child seeing violence and acting this out, they would not know it was wrong.  If this type of behavior was to continue without anyone correcting them they would go on in society thinking this violent behavior was acceptable and that they could carry on with it.  Children who go through life with seeing violence and not being corected on the acceptable behaviour start to become desensitized to the violnece that they see and then thay start to no be able to empathise with the the situations that they may find themselves in.

All of these factors lead us to a society today that is becoming something very different from 30 odd years ago and the increase in violence is becoming apart that it is coming from a society of violent media and computer games. Games need not be violent to be able to sell more or to be able to enjoy them. Children are so easily influenced they need to be having games that teach them positive attitudes in life and more research is being carried out on how to achieve this in modern day society.

 

References:

Anon (2010) American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry.Retrieved from (March 2012) http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions

Anon (2006) American medical association. Retrieved from (March 2012) http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/160/4/348.pdf
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Child’s play

As the current school curriculum involves children to be more active, out door forest schools aswell as indoor activities and after school clubs available 7 days a week we see children living lives as busy if not busier than an adults. It is becoming unclear at what point children become over scheduled to their developmental detriment or I’d emotional stress develops.

Free play is when a child is given or can chose for themselves what they are next going to play with, there is no adult interaction and the child can be left to explore their own world around them but still with adult supervision.  Structured or scheduled play is more interactive with adults where the adults chose and guide the child play.  The child is instucted and guided with new ideas, socila skills and more.

Research suggests that Child’s free play is seen to have more benefits than scheduled and structured activities.  Providing a child with free play means that the child can explore important social, emotional and intellectual milestones.

By children living busy lives of extra curriculum activities, and having to many structured activities at a younger age can cause early stress, anxiety and in rare situations depression.  A key benefit of free play is that during free play the child has a mental workout and forms executive control which is the ability to think twice, make quick and conscious decisions and think for their selves. As well as the basics of imagination, role play and creativity.

Research is rapidly influencing the schools systems of encouraging some structured and scheduled activities but much more free play, heuristic play and sensory play included in the free play so that the child can develop through exploring their own world rather than being forced into it.

However a benefit of structured play is that the child can have more experiences and will learn more new skills and the world around them can become bigger with the adult and the structure.

In the light of things having a balance of both structured and free play the child will benefit the most, by learning all sorts of skills, abilities and social benefits. the child can gain the best start in life.

 

 

References

http://www.raisesmartkid.com/all-ages/1-articles/15-the-benefits-of-free-play

http://www.resourcesformomsandkids.com/free-plas-vs-structured-play.html

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-serious-need-for-play

children vs Phobias

The majority of people have a phobia, but alot of these phobias have developed in adult life.  for example I am petrified of snakes, as a child i wasn’t to bothered about them. As an adult i cant even pick up a toy one. So where do phobias come from.

It is suggested that if you have a phobia as a  young child then you will develop to a  normal adult without a phobia. suggesting that phobias as a child are not carried through to adulthood  As adults we have very specific phobias and they can last for many years and can turn into very emotional and traumatic events of faced with the phobia.  However children can go through phases where such fears and phobias start and stop for no reason.  For example a child could be afraid of the dentist, a few days pass and they forget about the dentist and they forget about the phobia.

However some children really do develop more serious phobias.  Children cannot isolate their phobia in their emotions so therefore there phobia can become bigger that the real thing they are scared of.  For example a child refuses to go to school, they have a real fear and develop a phobia of school, everything about it is scary.  When the phobia is looked into and broken down it turns out that it is one bully in school that they are scared of not the whole thing.   Children’s phobia if treated right can be quickly turned around and disappear.

So how much of children phobias are passed on from their parents?

I is suggested that some phobias are passed on to children spiders and snakes but if the child has seen people they trust reacting nicely to spiders and snakes then they are more likely to get over their fear and not follow their parents phobias.  where as if they are seeing just their parents over reacting to spiders or snakes then they are going to think that is normal behavior when faced with the same situation.  So can we class these as phobias or normal behavior to reactions?

Here is a video pf Mr Bean with his phobia  🙂

 

REFERENCES

Anon (2012) Anxietycare. Children’s fear and phobias. Retrived from (February 2012) http://www.anxietycare.org.uk/docs/child.asp

Anon (Novemeber 2008) Parenting and child health. Fears and phobias – older children and teenagers. Retrieved from (February 2012)http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetails.aspx?p=114&np=141&id=2295

Anon (February 2008) ABCnews. Extreme Child Phobias: More Than Fear, Sometimes Dangerous, Even Deadly. Retrived from (February 2012)http://abcnews.go.com/Health/AnxietyDisorders/extreme-child-phobias-fear-dangerous-deadly/story?id=6887215&page=2#.T0FhOPXOuSo

 

 

 

 

 

CROWD BEHAVIOUR

Crowd Behaviour

 

Many people know or think they know how they would behave in a difficult circumstance or situation. But would you really know how you would behave in a crowd?

 

A good example of this is the riots that took place in the summer of 2011. Would the individuals have behaved in the same way if they were only in a group of people or about 10 people rather than hundreds? Peer pressure is seen at the main motivation with crowd psychology we seem to act like sheep our ‘normal’ behavior doesn’t come into play we just follow what the majority of the crowd are doing.

 

If you were on a train and you had two more stops till you got off. But everyone got off at the first stop…would you stay on the train of would you get off the train and follow the crowd? It is said that people do keep thinking for themselves and not over reacting, but the crowds do still influences their behavior. By people causing this mass of social change leaves different results. Some devastating like the 2010 riots others like the 9/11 attacks in America where people used their own initiative to save lives and to step out from the shadows of others and help people.

 

An advantage of going with the crowd is that it gives you added power in the situation that you are in. It makes you into somebody who you were not before and in some cases it can give the bonuses.  A huge disadvantage is that you cannot predict the direction the crowd will go in or the motives of the crowd that you are following. If the crowd leaving the train at the stop earlier were wrong then you to would be better to have followed your own initiative.

 

Sigmund Freud had a theory on crowd behavior. He suggested that, ‘when a person is in a crowd the act differently to when a person would be thinking individually. The thoughts of the crowd would start to blend and form a new way of thinking and this there for would lead the crowd. Each member’s enthusiasm would be increased as a result, and one becomes less aware of the true nature of one’s actions.’

 

So what will you do next time the crowd goes one way. Will you follow of will you be the individual thinker?

 

Dr, Drury, J.(2010)  Doctoral school blog. Crowd behaviour.retrived from (Feb 2012) http://doctoralschool.wordpress.com/2010/08/23/crowd-behaviour/

Anon. (2011) British Red Cross. Unrest in the city. Retrived from  (Feb 2012) http://www.redcross.org.uk/What-we-do/Teaching-resources/Lesson-plans/UK-unrest

SEX………..Blue vs PInk

The title of the article ‘At last, science discovers why blue is for boys but girls really do prefer pink’ (The Times, 2007) is a bit miss leading.  when you read the article you see that the article does not completely come to a conclusion that matches the title.   The article is mainly based on cultural preferences saying that when asking a group of  208 participants 37 were Chinese which red is a colour in their culture meaning luck and happiness.  The article has no evidence to back up any of it’s suggestions and the article is very short and covers several opinions on the topic.  There is no proper conclusion to the article is ends with another idea of why women choose pink,  it does not give any references or any research that has gone into the ideas of the article.

The second article is by Hurlbert and ling (2007)  it gives a lot of evidence to suggest why men and women choose blue and pink.  The title of the article fits well with the topic.  It does no miss lead the reader and it gives the reader enough information so they want to read on.   The article comes to a lot of conclusions on each area of research that it looked into.  the main conclusion was that when men and women choose either blue or pink cultural as well as individual experience. it is also down to each person using their own Trichromacy  The headline of the news report implied that the conclusion would be due to ‘Biological components of sex differences in color preference’ (Hurlbert and Ling, 2007).  This headline is accurate in the fact that the article covers these topic and gives valuable evidence to support this.

The article ‘At last, science discovers why blue is for boys but girls really do prefer pink’ (The Times 2007) is very short with no references or furthur reading or any evidence of research going into it.  The second article ‘Biological components of sex differences in color preference’ Hurlbert and Ling 2007) has a long list of references and good evidence of research that has been done to back up the points that it has made,  making it a more reliable source.

Hubert, A. C., & Ling, Y. (2007) Biological components of sex differences in colour preference, Current Biology,17, R623-R625. Doi:10. 1016/j.cub.2007.06.022

Hendson, M. (2007) At last, science discovers why blue is for boys but girls really do prefer pink, Cited from The times, (December 2011) Retrieved from http://www.cell.com/current-biology/supplemental/S0960-9822%2807%2901559-X

Would you be a good eye witness?

My blog today is all about taking in things around you.

If there was a car accident or a crime was committed and you were a witness, would you be able to be an accurate witness for the police?  This follows on from my blog last week of what we remember.

We only really remember what we need to and if it rehearsed then we can store it in our Long Term memory.  There is the danger that if we try and remember an event that happened and we over think it we can start adding things into the event and making our own memories of what we have seen.. Therefore not making it a very accurate interpretation of events.

Are some people better than others at remembering things that they have seen and being  more visually and spatial aware of their surroundings than others?

Here are a few clips some of them you may have seen before.

Watch the first clip and follow the instructions:

The second clip is of a film the shining and as in many films some things are recorded wrong and not true to real life.

How many of you who have seen the film the shining have already spotted these things?

Having a learning difficulty can effect the way we take things in and remember every day things around us as it influences several cognitive skills.  It is suggested that people with learning difficulties proved the best evidence in court as they give the most important details even if there testimony is short it is vital information in that short piece.

If everybody saw the same event happen, each persons account of the event would be slightly different and each testimony would contain different parts of information.  This is because each person would have something that meant something to them to remember it.    If i saw someone kick a football at someones head i would be less likely to remember that when giving an eye witness testimony account.  Whereas if someone stole a handbag, i would be able to give you size colour etc in my testimony.  Therefore we cant say that one person is more likely to give a better testimony than another.